Basic Computer Terminology

computer Assembly language : It a slow level of language which uses mnemonic statements to generate  machine code. It is typified by its speed of execution small executable file, size. They are hardware specific and therefore programme written on one particular machine may not work on another.

Association for women in computing [AWC] : A professional society  dedicated to the advancement of women in computer related fields. Founded in 1978

Advance Technology attachment packet interface [ATAPI]: A standed that makes it very easy to connect a CD –ROM drive to enhanced IDE host adapter.

Active Server Pages (ASP): A standard for scripting server side web pages.

Analog : Describing a system, particularly an electronic device, that uses a continuous physical quality to represent information.

ANSI( American National Standard Institute ): ANSI is an organization that fosters the development of technology standards in the United States  ANSI works with industry groups and is the US member of the International Standards Organisation (ISO) and the International Electro technicalCommission (IEC).

computerAPI ( Application Programming Interface ): API is a method prescribed by a computer operating system or  an application programme  which a programmer who is writing an application programme can use to make requests of the operating system or another application.

ARPA NET : A predecessor of the Internet where the methodology and software on which  the Internet is based were tested. No longer in existence. Started in 1969 with funds from the Defense Departments’s Advanced Projects Research Agency.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information interchange. This is a de-facto worldwide standard for code numbers used by computers to represent all upper and lowercase English letters, numbers, punctuation, etc.

Back-up File: A compy of file created as safety precaution  any harm occurs to the original.

BAK : The MS-DOS file name extension usually attached to a file containing backup data.

BAR Code : A printed pattern of wide and narrow vertical lines (bar) used to computer represent numerical code in machine readable from. A  bar code reader scans bar code with the help of special device and converts the bar code into a readable data with help of special software.

Beginner’s  All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code ( BASIC ): An easy to use computer high level programming language which is now replaced by improved version of Microsoft Visual Basic.

Basic input/Output System (BIOS) : A set of programmes encoded in Read Only Memory ( ROM ) in IBM PC- compatible computers.These programmes handed start up operations and low-level control for computer hardware such as key boards, moniter and diskdrives.

Bulletin Board Service/System (BBS ): A commercial data communication networks where users/subscribers can send messages, get advice on software or use entertainment features by mean of direct-dial modern links. The popularity of Internet has eroded the popularity and use of BBS.

Blind Carbon Copy (BBS) : In E-mail, a copy of message that is sent to one or more persons without the knowledge of other recipients. Also called Blind Courtesy Copy.

BGP: Border Gateway Protocol.

BMP: Bitmap ( file name extension) this is name extension for files which contains images stored as a set of bits.

Bit: A short form for binary digit. A bit is capable of recording ‘off or-on’ condition in the form of binary digit ‘0’ or ‘1’ respectively.

Byte: Computer Contiguous bits form a byte.

1 Kilobyte=1024 byte

1 Megabyte-1,048,576 bytes.


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